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The company was established on July 1, 2008, is a state-owned sole proprietorship company approved by the Shuangliu County Committee and approved by the county government to be established by the Shuangliu County State-owned Assets Supervision and Adminis
The company was established on July 1, 2008, is a state-owned sole proprietorship company approved by the Shuangliu County Committee and approved by the county government to be established by the Shuangliu County State-owned Assets Supervision and Adminis
The company was established on July 1, 2008, is a state-owned sole proprietorship company approved by the Shuangliu County Committee and approved by the county government to be established by the Shuangliu County State-owned Assets Supervision and Adminis
The company was established on July 1, 2008, is a state-owned sole proprietorship company approved by the Shuangliu County Committee and approved by the county government to be established by the Shuangliu County State-owned Assets Supervision and Adminis
The company was established on July 1, 2008, is a state-owned sole proprietorship company approved by the Shuangliu County Committee and approved by the county government to be established by the Shuangliu County State-owned Assets Supervision and Adminis
The company was established on July 1, 2008, is a state-owned sole proprietorship company approved by the Shuangliu County Committee and approved by the county government to be established by the Shuangliu County State-owned Assets Supervision and Adminis
The company was established on July 1, 2008, is a state-owned sole proprietorship company approved by the Shuangliu County Committee and approved by the county government to be established by the Shuangliu County State-owned Assets Supervision and Adminis
The company was established on July 1, 2008, is a state-owned sole proprietorship company approved by the Shuangliu County Committee and approved by the county government to be established by the Shuangliu County State-owned Assets Supervision and Adminis
The company was established on July 1, 2008, is a state-owned sole proprietorship company approved by the Shuangliu County Committee and approved by the county government to be established by the Shuangliu County State-owned Assets Supervision and Adminis

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《思考,快与慢》

Author:
张宣国
Source:
航都能源公司
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Review:
[Abstract]:
"有的书智慧,有的书有趣,而有的书很重要。《思考,快与慢》这本书,是三者兼具。"这是一位书评人,在《南方都市报》上对此书的评价。的确,由年近8旬的诺贝尔经济学奖获得者丹尼尔•卡尼曼教授写的这本书绝对担得起这样的评价。《思考,快与慢》这本书是对行为经济学、决策与判断等领域的研究。针对的问题恰好是我们每天都在进行的“拿主意”、“估计”等认知活动;此书一经推出,就迅速登上了美国各种严肃书评刊物,并被迅速

 

"有的书智慧,有的书有趣,而有的书很重要。《思考,快与慢》这本书,是三者兼具。"这是一位书评人,在《南方都市报》上对此书的评价。的确,由年近 8 旬的诺贝尔经济学奖获得者丹尼尔•卡尼曼教授写的这本书绝对担得起这样的评价。

《思考,快与慢》这本书是对行为经济学、决策与判断等领域的研究。针对的问题恰好是我们每天都在进行的 “拿主意”、“估计” 等认知活动;此书一经推出,就迅速登上了美国各种严肃书评刊物,并被迅速引进中国。

“思考,快与慢”,正如书名所提到的,卡尼曼一上来就在书中把我们的认知系统划分为两个部分:“系统1” 反应快速、依赖直觉,几乎不需要我们的努力就能完成任务;而 “系统 2” 则懒惰,工作起来就需要我们集中注意力,但它也理性、精确。我们每天都在两个系统间切换。例如:一眼辨别两条线段的长短只要系统1工作即可,而估算几条线段的平均长度,则非要系统 2 出马不行。

教授在书中探讨了人类非理性的规律 ,他的研究几乎很自然地引入到人类认知复杂性的领域,因为卡尼曼和他的合作者们主要是心理学和数学背景,他们不受经济学教科书的刻板影响,反而从另一个角度,开创了经济学的一大研究方向。

经济学的著名假设之一就是理性人,把人的决策行为看作遵循理性,遵循效用最大化。然而,现实是这样吗?我们会将金钱虚掷到一望就能知道稳赔不赚的赌局中,还经常因为担心损失放弃天赐良机般的投资机会。举一个例子,一套餐具有五个盘子,完好无损,另一套有六个,有一个是坏的。通常,后者的定价反而低于前者。因为坏的那个实在让我们不舒服。

现实中的非理性的决策实在太多了。

卡尼曼等人发现,损失造成的痛苦,远远大于收益带来的快感。损失 100 块,和少赚 100 块,在经济学上有时没有差别,对我们却是完全不同的两个体验。一旦涉及风险,尤其是风险被强调时,我们理性的商人心灵就会偃旗息鼓,换上那个规避风险的,尽管是非理性的头脑。并且还很少去实际算算数学期望。

一个有趣而又真实的例子是,股票持有者喜欢抛售赚钱的股票,而持有亏损的股票。尽管抛售可能带来相同的现金,而且抛售亏损部分还能降低未来风险,但大家还是喜欢那个 “我投资成功”的快感,而实际上这种快感是我们花钱买来的。

读完此书,我们会记住,非理性并不是疯狂,并不是毫无规律、随机,而是根植于我们认知系统的一套决策方法。如何避免非理性,书里也会告诉我们。

读这本书,你将不得不 “慢”,动用你懒惰的系统 2,因为打破常识的部分不少。但是,在快的时代,这也是一个机会,让我们对人性能有深入的一瞥。 

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